Introduction: Diabetes is a major global problem. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are risk factors for increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In 2014, the prevalence of diabetes worldwide was estimated at 9% among adults above 18 years of age. According to International Diabetes Foundation (IDF), 381 million people in 2013 had diabetes.
Objective: To study the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on patients admitted to the hospital (N.K.P Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur city, India) with ACS. Laboratory tests included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) after 75g glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile, CBC, urine and serum creatinine, 12 lead ECG, 2D ECHO and Doppler of heart, troponin-T and CPK-MB.
Results: 75 patients with ACS with no past history of diabetes or pre-diabetes were studied to determine the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes among this population. The study findings showed that in the 75 patients with ACS, 53.3% were pre-diabetic, 32% were diabetic and 14.6% had normal glucose tolerance. In ACS patients, the ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) group; 40% had diabetes and 50% had pre-diabetes, the non- ST elevated myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) group; 33.3% had diabetes and 58.3% had pre-diabetes and the unstable angina (UA) group; 24.2% had diabetes and 54.5% had pre-diabetes.
Conclusion: Early detection of diabetic and pre-diabetic status is necessary to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. Pre-diabetes is more common than diabetes in patients presenting with ACS who were previously undiagnosed with diabetes. Further research should evaluate the impact of the prevalence of these conditions on prehospital dispatching and emergency medical services.